"Healing the pain...one plant at at time..."


Obtained from: Leaves                                     E.O. Color: Clear                                Note: Top/Middle

Botanical Name: Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil)

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is in the mint (Lamiaceae AKA Labiatae) family of plants. Basil is also known as Common Basil, European Basil, Exotic Basil, French Basil, Sweet Basil, True Basil and Tropical Basil.

Basil is a common culinary herb in Africa, Asia and India. The essential oil of basil comes from Australia, France, Hungary, Madagascar, Morocco, Spain and the United States.

Basil is believed to have been brought to ancient Greece by Alexander the Great. In fact, basil’s genus name, Ocimum originates from the Greek word, “osme”, meaning “to smell”. In ancient Egypt, it was common to bury a wreath made of basil leaves with the mummified body. Today, Egyptian graves are adorned with scattered basil leaves to honor a loved one. In biblical times, it is said that where St. Helen found the true cross of Jesus, a basil plant sprung up upon her arrival. Hildegard of Bingen treated mute people and high fevers with basil. In the 1500’s powdered leaves of basil were inhaled, much like snuff to try to alleviate headaches and cold symptoms.

Basil is an energizing oil, so use sparingly in the early morning or daytime hours. The chemical constituents of basil can vary GREATLY. Look for a basil essential oil that contains a LOW amount of Methyl Chavicol (Estagole), since this plant chemical is a suspected carcinogen. Look for a HIGH amount of Linalool, such as Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum). Basil oil with a HIGH amount of Linalool has a very pleasant and sweet anise/licorice aroma compared to one with a low amount of Linalool. The nose knows!

Basil is divided into the following chemotypes (CT): Sweet basil, Camphor, Eugenol, Methyl cinnamate, and Reunion. FYI: A chemotype is one species of one plant, such as Basil (basilicum is one species of basil) that can have completely different chemical constituents from another species of basil.

Uses: Energizing, invigorating, anti-bacterial, antiviral, expectorant, insect bites, muscle relaxant, motion sickness, fainting restorative, headaches, a natural nerve tonic, antidepressant.

Indications: bronchitis, colds, coughs, flatulence, gout, muscle aches and pains, acne.

Contraindications: Since basil can become overwhelming and over stimulating quickly, basil essential oil should not be used during pregnancy, during breast feeding, during menstrual bleeding, nor on children or infants.

Safety Information: Use basil with CAUTION. Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend a dermal (skin) maximum dilution of 1.5% if Estragoles content DOES NOT exceed 0.8%. High doses of basil containing high amounts of Eugenol may also be CARCINOGENIC.

Blend with: Bergamot, Cedarwood, Clary Sage, Coriander, Cypress, Fennel, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Hyssop, Jasmine, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Niaouli, Oak moss, Orange, Palmarosa, Pine, Rosemary, Sage, Tea Tree, Thyme, Linalool.   © The Aromatherapy Factory

Holy Basil

Obtained from: Flowers / Leaves / Buds       E.O. Color: Pale yellow          Note: Top

Botanical Name: Ocimum sanctum / Ocimum gratissimum / Ocimum tenuiflorum

Holy Basil is also known as Tulsi essential oil. Holy Basil is the basil that is used almost exclusively in India for Ayurveda practices and religious ceremonies. The aroma of Holy Basil wafts somewhere between traditional basil and clove oil, giving it a very memorable aroma. Chemically, Holy Basil contains a substantial amount of Eugenole, the same chemical that gives clove oil it’s characteristic enticing aroma. Because Holy Basil contains a large percentage of Eugenol, it must be used sparingly. Both Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend a 1% maximum dilution. High doses of Eugenol may be carcinogenic.

Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae).

Uses: Energizing, stimulating, respiratory, focus enhancer, sacred healing herb of India.

Indications: Medicinal and spiritual properties. Uses similar to Basil Linalool (Ocimum basilicum CT Linalool).

Contraindications: Should NOT be used on clients on blood thinners or aspirin since Holy Basil oil may inhibit blood clotting due to Eugenol. Nor should it be used on clients with hemophilia, menstruating women or anyone with a blood disorder involving a weakened clotting factor.

Safety Information: Robert Tisserand and Gary Young both agree not to exceed a 1% dilution. The European Union (EU) recommends a maximum (dilution) concentration for dermal use of 0.07%. My recommendation is to use Holy Basil for inhalation only. The IFRA (International Fragrance Association), based out of Geneva Switzerland (ifraorg.org) recommends a dermal maximum of 0.05%.    © The Aromatherapy Factory 


Obtained from: Citrus peel / rind             E.O. Color: Pale gold / green             Note: Top

Botanical Name(s): Cistus bergamia

Family: Rutaceae

The legend of Earl Grey Tea began with the British Aristocrat, The Earl Charles Grey in the early 1800’s. Charles Grey (1764 – 1845) was Prime Minister of England from 1830 – 1834. It is thought The Earl  introduced a black tea from China, mixed with oil of Bergamot that graced London’s best drawing rooms.   Once Queen Victoria tasted his tea, it spread across England and soon became England’s famous Earl Grey Tea.

Bergamot was named after the Italian City of Bergamo, where the oil of the fruit was first expeller pressed. Bergamot has a light and fruit aroma, similar to an orange. Bergamot fruit is edible. It is found in the confectionary “Turkish Delight”. Bergamot is used to make marmalade. Regarding aromatherapy, approximately 1/3 of all men’s cologne and ½ of all perfume contains the essential oil of Bergamot.     Bergamot seems to be calming and uplifting at the same time.

Indications: Skin care, such as acne, cold sores, eczema, itching, insect bites, oily complexion, psoriasis, etc. FYI: Traditionally, the juice of the Bergamot fruit was used to treat malaria.

Contraindications: Bergamot is highly phototoxic due to the chemical, Bergaptene. DO NOT use bergamot with exposure to sun or UV rays.

Blends with: Clary sage, Chamomile, Coriander, Cypress, Frankincense (Olibanum), Geranium, Helichrysum, Jasmine, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Neroli, Nutmeg, Orange, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Ylang-Ylang.   © The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Wood                            E. O. Color: Yellow – Amber                                Note: Base

Botanical Name: Cedrus atlantica (Atlas Cedarwood) and Juniperus virginiana (Virginian Cedarwood)

Cedarwood essential oil comes from the shavings of the cedarwood tree. Legend has it that cedarwood was the very first oil to be extracted and the first oil to be distilled. Cedarwood essential oil smells just like a newly installed cedar closet or the inside of a cedarwood trunk. Cedarwood, by nature is insect resistant.

Cedarwood trees are native to the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco. The Atlas cedarwood tree can top 150 feet tall. Cedarwood oil from the tree is thick and golden yellow.

Historically, Cedarwood was used as part of the Egyptian mummification process. It was also used to build Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem. Tibetans have used cedarwood as a sacred and spiritual oil for centuries. Today, cedarwood is useful in making trunks, lining clothes closets and creating masculine smelling essential oil blends.

Atlas Cedarwood has a rich and warm aroma with a medium to strong, sweet and woody note.   Atlas cedarwood has a slightly sharper aroma than Virginian cedarwood.  

Virginian Cedarwood has a sharp, fresh and woody aroma and reminds your nose and memory of a cedar lined closet.

Uses: Acne, arthritis, bronchitis, cough, dermatitis, expectorant, insect repellant, lymphatic stimulant, overall sedative, stress reliever, wound healer.

Indications: Respiratory congestion, anxiety, eczema, oily skin, acne, poor concentration, cellulite reducer, lymphatic stimulator.

Contraindications: Atlas cedarwood is a non-irritating and non-sensitizing essential oil. It should not be used during pregnancy and while breast feeding.

Blend with: Bergamot, Clary Sage, Cypress, Frankincense, Juniper, Ylang-ylang.

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from:  Leaves / twigs      E.O. Color: Clear to pale yellow-green       Note: Middle     


Botanical Name(s):  Cupressus sempervirens        Family: Cupressaceae


Notes: Stronger astringent than witch hazel, so good for oily skin. Cypress trees are indigenous

to most Mediterranean countries. In his 1633 “Herbal”, John Gerard stated "an extract of

cypress cones were used to heal ulcers and for cleaning and drying moist wounds."

Cypress was also used as an expectorant and to alleviate spasmodic coughing of

whooping cough. The resin was placed in hot water and inhaled for lungs. Traditionally

used for diarrhea, hemorrhoids, uterine problems, menopause and to reduce fevers. Treated

by infusion in water or tincture of leaves and cones. Keep in mind that essential oils will not

necessarily possess the same properties in water based essential oil extracts.


Uses:   *Diffuse for emotional uplifting or to calm anxiety.

            *Inhalation in hot water is excellent for lung ailments.

            *Use in massage, especially if someone has a bronchial / lung ailment.

            *Wonderful to help alleviate swelling around joints or varicose veins.

*Cypress may help decongest veins and lymph vessels.

            *Good for blemished or oily skin, focus and mental concentration.


Blend with:  Bergamot, Cedarwood, Clary Sage, Eucalyptus, Frankincense (Olibanum), Geranium,

Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Orange, Pine, Roman Chamomile, Rosemary, Sandalwood.

© The Aromatherapy Factory



Obtained from:  Leaves                  E.O. Color:  Clear and yellows with age              Note: Top


Botanical Name(s):  Eucalyptus globulus AKA (Blue Gum).                                         Family: Myrtaceae


Eucalyptus globulus  (Blue Gum) is the most common and strongest species of eucalyptus. E. globulus has a very high eucalyptol (1.8 cineol) chemical content. E. globulus must be re-distilled due to the isovalraldehyde content which can initiate a strong cough reflex. Not to be used on children under ten (10) years old, as per Robert Tisserand and Gary Young. Eucalyptus is in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae).


Eucalyptus polybrachtea AKA (Blue Mallee). Very strong 1.8 cineole content. Low aldehyde content.


Eucalyptuc citriodora AKA (Lemon Eucalyptus). Comes from China. Mild with a lemony aroma. Good for use on children due to its mild aroma and its chemical constituents.


Eucalyptus dives AKA (Peppermint Eucalyptus). Very strong with a high piperitone chemical content, which makes this smell like mint. Not to be used on children or pregnant mothers. May be used with hypertension.


Eucalyptus radiataThe mildest yet most effective eucalyptus available. Low in irritating aldehydes and high in eucalyptol make this an aromatherapist’s eucalyptus oil of choice. Diffuse, inhale or use in a humidifier.



Notes: More than 700 species of Eucalyptus exist, but only a few hundred are grown for commercial use.

Several varieties with a high cineol content are used to produce the oil which is sold as E. globulus. The trees

are indigenous to Australia and Tasmania, but are now grown around the world. China exports volumes

of eucalyptus oil. It is a common ingredient in cough drops and over-the-counter cold remedies.


It is thought that Australian aboriginals knew the therapeutic properties of the different kinds of Eucalyptus

and used them in their medicines for thousands of years.


Uses:         *Add 1 or 2 drops to a carrier oil for chest and back rubs to relieve respiratory conditions.

                    Not ideal for general body massage by itself.

*Inhale on a cotton ball or tissue for relief of respiratory conditions.

*Diffuse 1 or 2 drops of E. radiata or E. polybrachtea in a humidifier or simmer in a pot of water.


Indications: Respiratory conditions, hypertension, muscular aches and pains, joints, sprains / strains, acne.


Contraindications:  KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN:  Ingestion has been known to cause death

in children and adults. Must not be applied to or near the nostrils of infants because of the risk of choking, due to the fast cooling effects on the respiratory system.  Some skin irritation has been reported when used neat.


Blend with: Basil, Cypress, Fir, Frankincense, Geranium, Grapefruit, German Chamomile, Helichrysum, Hyssop, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Myrrh, Myrtle, Peppermint, Rosemary, Tea Tree and Thyme.

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: seeds (steam distilled)    E.O. Color: clear, faint yellow          Note: Top / Middle

Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare


Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the parsley/carrot family (Apiaceae AKA Umbelliferae). The seeds of the fennel plant are steam distilled to yield a sweet, fresh and clean anise-like aroma. Fennel leaves appear similar to the dill plant. Fennel is indigenous to the Mediterranean but grows in Australia, Egypt, Europe, Japan, India, North America and Spain. In Australia, fennel is an invasive species and considered a weed. Worldwide, India has the highest production of fennel.

Fennel is an ancient plant that’s been used for everything from warding off evil spirits in Medieval times when hung over doorways, to chewing fennel seeds to inspire strength and stamina in Greek Olympic athletes while training. Ancient Romans ate fennel seeds to help with digestion, halitosis and sleeplessness. In modern times, fennel seeds are widely used in culinary and the seeds are still chewed today to avoid gastritis and aid digestion.

Uses: Fennel is a minimal diuretic and lymphatic decongestant. May be useful with menstrual cramping and PMS. Fennel is known to encourage healing regarding inflammatory conditions, digestion and tumoral activity. Fennel may promote milk production (fennel contains phyto-estrogens) in lactating females. Fennel can be a skin irritant, so use sparingly.

Indications: Cellulite, arthritis, bruises, digestive problems, flatulence, lymphatic congestion, nausea, water retention.

Contraindications: Fennel should NOT be used on persons with estrogen dependent cancers (breast, endometrial, ovarian), epilepsy/seizure disorders, young children under 5 years of age, pregnant women. Can be a skin irritant.

Safety Information: Tisserand and Young indicate that Fennel Oil may interact with medication, and that it may inhibit blood clotting. They precaution to avoid use of the oil topically if it has oxidized as skin sensitization is more likely. Their contraindications include pregnancy, breastfeeding, endometriosis, estrogen-dependent cancers, and children under 5. Their dermal maximum is 2.5%. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 277.]

Blend with: Angelica, Anise, Basil, Bergamot, Cardamom, Clove, Coriander, Chamomiles, Caraway, Cypress, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Orange, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Ylang Ylang.   © The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Needles                           E. O. Color: Mostly clear                    Note: Middle

Botanical Name: Aries balsam

Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)

Fir is also referred to as Balsam Fir or Canadian Fir. The precious essential oil is steam distilled from the fir needles. Steam distilled fir needles have a moderately fresh, earthy, sweet and woodsy aroma.

FYI: There is evidence that balsam fir was referred to as “Liquid gold” or “Gold oil” in Biblical times. Historians are pondering if the “Gold”, Frankincense and Myrrh brought to the Christ child was actually Fir, Frankincense and Myrrh. It is also believed that fir was referred to as “Balm of Gilead”. Fir was also believed to be one of the precious oils found by Howard Carter in the tomb of King, Tutankhamun in 1922.

 Uses: Musculoskeletal, respiratory ailments, scoliosis, low back pain and sciatica.


Indications: Arthritis, sore muscles, nerve tonic, sinus congestion, fatigue, bronchitis, colds, flu.

Contraindications: Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend avoiding this essential oil if the oil is oxidized. Skin sensitization is much more likely when using an oxidized oil.

Blend with: Basil, Bergamot, Birch, Cedarwood, Cypress, Frankincense, Geranium, Hyssop, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Myrtle, Orange, Peppermint, Pine, Rosemary, Thyme.     © The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Tree resin                          E.O. Color: Light yellow                      Note: Base 

Botanical Names: Boswellia carteri, Boswellia sacra

Family - Burseraceae

Frankincense AKA Olibanum (Boswellia sacra or Boswellia carteri) comes from steam distilling the frankincense tree resin. Frankincense trees can live 300 years! They are small in stature with abundant narrow leaves and pale pink or white flowers. Incisions are made into the tree bark and a thick light brown colored sap oozes from the frankincense tree. Sap is left on the tree for two weeks or until it whitens before it’s cut off in small pieces and steam distilled. Some of the best frankincense comes from Oman. Arabia, China, Ethiopia, India, the Middle East and Somalia also harvest frankincense. The Frankincense Trail (a site in Oman on the Incense Road) supplies the world with the most coveted frankincense today. From the 7th century BC to the 2nd century AD, the Frankincense Trail AKA Incense Trail stretched across the Mediterranean, through Egypt, into Northern Africa and Arabia and to India. 

Frankincense E.O. has been used for religious rituals and ceremonies for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians used its charred gum resin, called kohl to adorn their eyes, much like mascara. Frankincense was brought to the Christ child as a gift from the Magi. For centuries frankincense was more valuable than gold. Today, the Oman culture smoke their homes and clothing daily by burning frankincense. Avoid using Frankincense if the E.O. has oxidized from too much light, heat or even oxygen.

Frankincense is excellent for mature and aging skin, anxiety, scars, stretch marks. Frankincense tends to relax the central nervous system. Since it’s high in terpenes, frankincense can stimulate the limbic system in the brain. The limbic system is responsible for primitive emotions and higher mental functions such as learning and memory. Frankincense has been used to enhance and deepen prayer and meditation. It appears to relax and rejuvenate the body, mind and spirit.

Blends with: Basil, Bergamot, Black pepper, Clary sage, Coriander, Cypress, Galbanum, Geranium, Grapefruit, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Neroli, Orange, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Pine, Rose, Sandalwood, Ylang Ylang.         

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Flowers/Leaves               E. O. Color: Clear – Amber              Note: Middle

Botanical Name: Pelargonium graveolens / Pelargonium roseum

Geranium is in the geranium family (Geraniaceae) of plants.

Geranium is native to South Africa. From there, geranium was exported to Europe. Most of the essential oil comes from the island of Reunion, off the coast of Madagascar. Madagascar is an island off the southeast coast of Africa.

Geranium is used heavily in the perfume industry and often used in place of rose oil. Geranium has a very fresh and floral sweetness with a mildly fruity note that can please even the most discriminating aromatic palate.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) is also called “Moroccan” geranium.

Geranium (Pelargonium roseum) is also called “Rose” geranium, considered the “Gold Standard” of the geranium species. Rose geranium has a heavy, rich and rosy sweet aroma. Using one drop in a blend can instantly conjure up a beautiful Springtime garden aroma.

Uses: Calming, uplifting, mind and body balancer, astringent for the skin, insect repellant, cellulite smoother, inflammation, menopausal symptoms, general tonic, anti-fungal.

Indications: Acne, cellulitis, dull dry skin, menopause symptoms, oily skin.

Contraindications: The European Union classifies geranium as a strong skin sensitization oil. Both Robert Tisserand and Gary Young classify geranium as a ” low risk” skin sensitization oil.

DO NOT exceed 1.5% maximum dilution for topical use and DO NOT use on sensitive, irritated or damaged skin. Avoid this oil during pregnancy and while breast feeding. DO NOT ingest this oil orally, just as you would not ingest any essential oil. Ingesting geranium oil will cause a drug interaction with diabetic medication, as well as medications that are metabolized by CYP2B6 enzymes (cyclophosphamides).

Blend with: Bergamot, Cedarwood , Citronella, Clary sage, Clove, Cypress, Fennel, Frankincense, Ginger, Grapefruit, Jasmine, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Neroli, Sw

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Root                                  E. O. Color: Pale yellow                      Note: Middle / Base

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale

Family: Zingiberaceae

Ginger has been used both as a culinary spice and medicinal root for thousands of years. In Asia, ginger is thought to stimulate the Yang energy of the heart, lung, kidney, spleen and stomach meridians. Chinese medicine believes that ginger’s ability to strengthen the kidney’s yang energy is associated with healing low back pain.

Ginger was one of the first spices to travel from Asia to Europe on the famous “Spice Route”. In the 1500’s, Spanish conquistadors brought ginger root to the West Indies. Today, Jamaican ginger is considered to be the "Gold Standard" of culinary ginger.

The aroma of Ginger can vary widely depending on the quality of the ginger root and the distillation process that makes the essential oil. Ginger has a strong aroma. Ginger is most famous for its decongesting, energizing, invigorating, uplifting and warming qualities.

Topically, ginger is mostly used as an effective digestive aid, for nausea, motion sickness, muscle pain, arthritis  and anesthetic properties.

Indications: Arthritis, flatulence, indigestion, motion sickness, muscle aches and pains, digestive disorders, nausea, poor circulation, pain.

Contraindications: Robert Tisserand ad Gary Young have not found any hazards using ginger root essential oil. Ginger root has be suspected of being phototoxic, but Tisserand and Young have stated, “ Low level phototoxic effects reported for ginger are not considered significant”. (Opdyke 1974, page 910 – 902).

Blend with: Bergamot, Cedarwood, Clove, Coriander, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Geranium, Grapefruit, Jasmine, Juniper, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Neroli, Orange, Palmarosa,  Patchouli, Rose, Rosewood, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Ylang-ylang.

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Rind                            E.O. Color: Pale yellow – yellow                       Note: Top

Botanical Name: Citrus paradisi

Grapefruit is in the Rutaceae family. The origin of the grapefruit tree remains a mystery, although many believe it may have come from Asia and was brought to Spain by Arabian traders in the 1100’s. That was the story of how several other seeds, such as the pomelo, a larger grapefruit-like citrus traveled across the world. In fact, the grapefruit is thought to be a hybrid cross between the pomelo tree and the sweet orange tree. The pomelo fruit was introduced to Captain Shaddick (Captain of an East India company) in the 1700’s in the West Indies. It was there the pomelo fruit was called Shaddick fruit. Today, California produces a considerable amount of grapefruit for the United States.

Grapefruit essential oil is cold pressed (cold expression) directly from the grapefruit rind. Both white and pink grapefruit essential oils are available, although pink grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) is considered both sweeter and more aromatically pleasing than the white grapefruit oil. The tangy sweetness is attributed to the chemical constituent Limonene, which can be as high as 95%.

Grapefruit essential oil is frequently used in cosmetics, perfume, soaps and as a food flavoring.

Uses: Cooling, cleansing, decongesting, energizing, stimulating, uplifting, refreshing,

Indications: May aid in lymphatic decongesting, decongesting oily skin, cellulitis, water retention, nervous exhaustion, skin toning, mental clarity. May help with nervous tension, acne, stretch marks.

Contraindications: Grapefruit essential oil is phototoxic. Both Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend using no more than a 4% (maximum) dilution to avoid a possible phototoxic reaction. REMEMBER…Citrus oils that have a greater chance to become oxidized. Oxidized essential oils have a greater risk of skin sensitization. 

FYI: Grapefruit juice / essential oil interacts with several drugs. Grapefruit may amplify or suppress a medication. The furanocoumarins and flavinoids in grapefruit are responsible for these adverse effects. 

PLEASE READ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit%E2%80%93drug_interactions regarding drug overdose or under-dose toxicity regarding grapefruit. 

Blends with: Bergamot, Cardamom, Citrus oils, Clary sage, Clove, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Fennel, Frankincense, Fir Needle, Geranium, Ginger, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Neroli, Orange, Palmarosa, Patchouli Peppermint, Rosemary, Ylang-ylang.

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Lavandula angustifolia

Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin)

Lavandula stoechas

Lavandula latifolia (Spike)     

Obtained from: Flowers          E.O. Color: Clear, pale yellow - green          Note: Middle / Top

Botanical NamesLavandula angustifolia (Genus/species)  AKA  True/English Lavender

Lavandula x hybrida  (Lavandin)                                                      Family: Lamiaceae

Lavandula latifolia     (Spike Lavender)

Lavadula stoechas   (French, Spanish or Topped Lavender). There are at least thirty-nine (39) species of Lavandula. Lavender is in the (Lamiaceae AKA Labiatae) family.

FYI: Did you know the mint family (Lamiaceae) plants all have square stems? Lavender has a square stem.

Lavender is considered the “Mother of all Essential Oils” because it has the tendency to balance all body systems. The ancient Romans loved Lavender and used it frequently to bathe. The word, ‘Lavender’ comes from the Latin word, ‘lavare’ which means “to bathe” or “to wash”.

Lavender is a sedative by nature, but becomes a stimulant when used in excess. LMBT’s take note!

In 1910, Rene-Maurice Gattefosse, a French chemist and perfumist burned both hands during a laboratory explosion. His hands were covered with a rapidly developing gas gangrene, most commonly caused by the bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, found in soil. He used several lavender applications to stop the spread of the gangrenous sores. After just one lavender rinse, the gasification of tissue stopped. Gattefosse healed with little scarring. Gattefosse is believed to have “’coined” the word, ‘Aromatherapy’ in his 1937 publication, Aromatherapie. Today, Gattefosse is referred to as the “Father of Aromatherapy”.

FYI: Gas gangrene can be fatal. It was the cause of many amputations during WWI. Gattefosse and several medical doctors treated French soldiers with Lavender and other essential oils for war wounds with much success.

Uses of Lavender: Lavandula angustifolia is considered the most therapeutic and sought after lavender. It has been used for centuries on burns and skin lesions. It is widely used in the perfume industry. It grows at high altitudes. It has more than 160 chemical constituents. One (1) drop of Lavender (NOT Lavandin) can be used neat (straight) or diluted in a carrier oil. Use lavender on the body, diffuse it or make a spritzer using distilled water. Place dried lavender flowers in a small muslin bag in the clothes dryer for a hint of lavender. Inhale small amounts of lavender on a cotton ball to lessen a headache or migraine. Apply one (1) drop of lavender to each foot or each shoulder to release tension. Apply a warm compress with a few drops of lavender over sore muscles.

When L. angustifolia (True or English Lavender) crosses with L. latifolia (Spike lavender), it creates the hybrid Lavandula x hybrid or Lavandin. Lavandin is used mostly for industrial soap, detergents and perfumes. It does not seem to have the same calming properties that L. angustifolia has. Lavandin is NOT to be used on burns!

Lavandula x hybrida AKA Lavandin grows at low altitudes. It has sixty chemical constituents. It has a much stronger camphoraceous note. Lavandin has a strong aroma of lavender and is used in the dried floral industry.

Lavandula stoechas (French, Spanish or Topped Lavender) is used in air fresheners and other industrial products, such as insecticides. Considered an invasive species in parts of Australia and Spain. This species of lavender has been declared a noxious weed since 1920 in Victoria, Australia.

Lavender 40/42 is the distillation of four (4) lavender species: L. angustifolia, L. x hybrida, L. latifolia, and L. stoechas. This blend has 40% Linalool and 42% linalyl acetate. The aromatic chemicals linalool and linalyl acetate gives this blend a fantastic aroma!  This blend contains Lavandin, so it’s NOT to be used on burns.     

Indications:  Anxiety, arthritis, burns, headache, insect stings and bites, insomnia, migraine, muscle aches and pain, tension and so much more.

Contraindications: Lavender E.O. is one of the safest oils on earth, however there’s always a small percentage of people that may experience skin irritation. Perform a patch test, diluting lavender in a quality carrier oil.

Blend with: Bergamot, Cedar, Clary Sage, Frankincense (Olibanum), Geranium, Jasmine, Juniper, Mandarin, Neroli, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sandalwood and many other essential oils.

© The Aromatherapy Factory


Obtained from: Citrus rind                  E.O. Color: Pale to deep yellow                    Note: Top

Botanical Name: Citrus limon

Lemon is in the Rutaceae (citrus) family. The very recognizable aroma of lemon oil smells fresh, uplifting and clean. Limonene (60% – 70%) is the primary chemical in lemon oil that triggers its classic lemony scent. Lemon myrtle and lemongrass also have limonene as their primary aromatic chemical constituent. Lemon essential oil is always an excellent choice when trying to rid a room of unsavory smells, such as cigarette, cigar, old culinary odors, etc. Just a few drops of lemon essential oil in a spritzer bottle filled with distilled water makes a potent massage therapy room deodorizer.

The lemon tree is a small (10 – 20 ft.) evergreen tree which produces highly aromatic pink and white flowers. It’s not uncommon for one lemon tree to produce 1000 – 1500 lemons per year!

FYI: Cold pressed essential oil of lemon is phototoxic. Steam distilled lemon oil is NOT phototoxic.

Uses: Lemon oil has been used to help reduce bacteria and viruses in hospitals, medical clinics and home interiors for centuries. Some of the finest therapeutic grade lemon oil is used in commercial cleaning products around the world.

Dr. Jean Valnet, M.D., a leader in essential oil therapy in France states that diffused lemon oil can kill meningococcus bacteria in fifteen (15) minutes, pneumococcus bacteria within 180 minutes, staphylococcus aureus in 120 minutes and typhoid bacilli in sixty (60) minutes. A 0.2% dilution of lemon essential oil can kill diphtheria bacteria in twenty (20) minutes and can also kill the inactivated form of tuberculosis bacteria.  

Indications: Lemon oil is a powerful bacterial and viral deactivator, antiseptic, skin astringent (REMEMBER to used steam distilled lemon oil on the skin), skin spot remover, may stimulate digestion, may help prevent contagious diseases.

Contraindications: Both Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend a maximum dermal dilution of 2.0 % for cold pressed lemon oil to avoid a phototoxic skin reaction. If the cold pressed or the steam distilled lemon oil has oxidixed, they recommend NOT using it on skin. Remember that some sensitive skin individuals may have a reaction to both kinds of lemon oil.

Safety Information: Lemon oil, especially cold pressed may cause blotchy brown spots on the skin. DO NOT use cold pressed lemon oil topically. Use steam distilled lemon oil on skin.

Blend with:  Basil, Bergamot, Citronella, Clary Sage, Dill, Fennel, Frankincense, Galbanum, Geranium, Hyssop, Lavender, Neroli, Nutmeg, Orange flower, Peppermint, Rosemary, Violet leaf, Ylang-ylang.

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Obtained from:  Grass-like leaves            E.O. Color:  Pale yellow - straw          Note: Top / Middle


Botanical Names: Cymbopogon citratus    (West Indian lemongrass)                  Family: Gramineae

                                   Cymbopogon flexuosus (East Indian lemongrass)


Lemongrass is in the family of grasses, Gramineae, grown in Africa, Asia, India and the West Indies.

Lemongrass has a fresh and citrus-like aroma that is commonly added to skin care products, to shampoos for

shine to the hair and to industrial soaps for its strong lemony aroma. Lemongrass is quite an effective insect repellent, except for the fact that lemongrass will attract honey bees. Lemongrass is typically steam distilled.


Lemongrass, also known as Barbed Wire Grass, Fever Grass or Silky Heads is widely used in traditional medicine in several countries. In Nigeria, lemongrass is used to treat the common cold, pneumonia and as an antipyretic (anti-fever). In India, it's used as an anti-tussive (anti-cough), anti-emetic (anti-nausea / vomiting), antiseptic (anti-microbes) and antirheumatic (anti-rheumatoid arthritis symptoms).


Lemongrass becomes thicker as it ages and when "old" can't be relied on for antimicrobial properties.


Uses:         *Use in diffusers for refreshing and relaxing environment. May help with bacterial

                    infections of the respiratory tract. Has been known to relieve mild asthmatic conditions.

                  *Common in massage oil blends to help relieve depression or stress.

                  *Add to carrier oil for massage treatment to relieve myalgia (muscle pain).

                  *As an analgesic, dilute lemongrass in a carrier oil and apply a small amount to affected area.

                  *Use several drops of lemongrass in distilled water in a spritzer bottle to deodorize a room.


Contraindications: DILUTE lemongrass due to possible skin sensitivity / irritation. Avoid using lemongrass

in children under age two. Lemongrass is a sensitization oil. Perform a patch test to deter dermal irritation.


Blend with: Bergamot, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Hyssop, Jasmine, Juniper, Lavender,

Mandarin, Olibanum (Frankincense), Pine, Rosemary, Rosewood, Vetiver.  

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Obtained from: Leaves & flowering tops      E.O. Color: Clear to pale yellow      Note: Middle


Botanical Name: Origanum marjorana (Marjoram), Marjorana hortensis (Sweet Marjoram)

Marjoram is in the mint family (Lamiaceae or Labiatae). Marjoram has a warm and spicy aroma that is popular in cosmetics, perfumes, soaps and aromatherapy blends.

Notes: Greeks and Romans wove crowns out of marjoram for newlyweds. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite (Goddess of Love) picked marjoram on Mount Ida to heal the wounds of Enea. Romans called marjoram the "Herb of Happiness". Greeks called marjoram the "Joy of the Mountains”.Sweet Marjoram” (Marjorana hortensis) is used to make vermouth and some liqueurs. Marjoram can stimulate the vagus nerve (parasympathetic) and does not act on the sympathetic nervous system. Marjoram may facilitate drainage of blood away from bruises. Ideal for muscle soreness.


Historically, marjoram was used for warming any cold conditions of the body, such as poor peripheral circulation, and was said to "warm" the emotions.


In Elizabethan England, single women would anoint themselves with Marjoram oil at bedtime

to dream of their future mate.


Uses:         *NOT ideal for a diffuser, but is useful during times of cold and flu season because it

                    may reduce the spread of germs and helps ease head colds.

*Add to massage carrier oil to help reduce stiff and painful muscle and joint aches.

  Seems to help with emotional instability, headaches, migraines and anxiety.

                  *Warm compresses can be used to relieve earaches. Also used for muscle sprains

                    where swelling and bruising have occurred.

                  *Use a couple drops of both marjoram and lavender in a bath as a therapeutic sedative.


Contraindications:  Keep away from children and avoid use in the early stages of pregnancy.

Blend with: Basil, Bergamot, Cedarwood, Chamomile (Roman and German), Clary Sage, Cypress, Eucalyptus (citriodora or radiata), Fennel, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Nutmeg, Olibanum (Frankincense), Orange, Peppermint, Pine, Rosemary, Sage, Tea Tree, Thyme (linalool) and Ylang, Ylang.


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Obtained from: Leaves                               E. O. Color: Pale yellow                     Note: Top / Middle

Botanical: Myrtus communis / Backhousia citriodora

A.    Myrtle (Myrtus communis) is in the Myrtle (Myrtaceae) family. Over the centuries myrtle has been used for religious ceremonies and was even considered a sign of immortality. Myrtle was used by the Israelites during their evening Sabbath. In the 1500’s, it is believed that Myrtle was also used in a lotion called “Angeles Water”.

Myrtle’s aroma is slightly sweet with a hint of flowers and camphor.

Uses: Respiratory conditions, especially children’s chest colds, decongestant, expectorant, meditation oil, mood enhancer, astringent, possible muscle relaxant and skin conditioner.

Safety Information: Robert TIisserand and Gary Young both recommend a dermal maximum dilution of 1.9%.

Blend with: Bergamot, Black Pepper, Cardamon, Cedarwood, Clary sage, Coriander, Elemi, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Ho Wood, Hyssop, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Melissa, Myrrh, Neroli, Rosemary, Rosewood, Spearmint, Thyme, Ylang-ylang.


B.     Lemon Myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) has a sharp and crisp aroma that’s lemonier than smelling lemon oil.

Safety Information: Robert Tisserand and Gary Young agree that Lemon Myrtle may cause a drug interaction with people using drugs which are metabolized by CYP2B6. They DO NOT recommend topical use of Lemon Myrtle on children under 2 years of age, nor do they recommend Lemon Myrtle for irritated, diseased, damaged or hypersensitive skin. They recommend a maximum dermal dilution of 0.7%. on healthy mature skin.

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Obtained from: Fruit peel (rind)        E.O. Color: Straw/yellow, orange/brown/green      Note: Top

Botanical Names: Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange)                                                       Family: Rutaceae

Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange). The most popular orange essential oil. An effective emotional uplifter.

Sweet orange may be phototoxic. Inhalation may calm nausea and a nervous stomach. Dilute with jojoba

oil may support collagen and work as a skin conditioner. Sweet orange has a greenish yellow - orange color.

Citrus sinensis (Blood orange). A variety of sweet orange with a tart aroma and red colored fruit. Pale

yellow – orange E.O. color.


Citrus aurantium (Bitter orange). A bitter sweet aroma, similar to grapefruit. Used to help the effects of a head or chest cold and congestion. Bitter orange is phototoxic. Yellow - orange to green E.O. color.

Notes: It’s believed that the orange was brought from India to Arabia during the 9th century. Sometime during the 11th century the orange made its way to Spain and Italy. Early in the 13th century, oranges were cultivated in Palermo and Seville, Italy. Wild bitter oranges were indigenous to South America and early explorers found extensive orange plantations throughout Cuba. Christopher Columbus brought the orange to Florida in 1493.


Here’s a quick way to remember what part of the orange tree your essential oil comes from when you purchase Orange Essential Oil:

a.      Petitgrain – steam distilled from the orange leaves. E.g. Citrus aurantium var. amara or bigardia.


b.      Neroli – steam distilled from the orange flowers. It takes 1000 lbs. of orange blossoms to make one (1) lb. of Neroli essential oil…! The name “Neroli” is thought to have originated from the French born Italian princess Anne-Marie de la Tremoille, the Countess of Nerola, who lived in central Italy.

      She was known to use Neroli oil as a perfume and to enhance the aroma of her bathwater and gloves.


c.       Essence of Orange – the rind is pressed to expel the orange essential oil. No heat is required.


Uses: Can be inhaled or diffused. Remember that certain species of orange essential oil are phototoxic. To avoid becoming sunburned, do not go out in the sun after the application of oil of orange. The furanocoumarins (FCs) present in cold pressed EO’s are the culprits that can cause skin irritation when exposed to ultraviolet (UV). Steam distilled citrus EO’s apparently do not cause skin reactions when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light.

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Obtained from: Leaves / flowers    E. O. Color: Clear - pale yellow or pale green      Note: Top


Botanical Name:  Mentha piperita                                       Family: Lamiaceae  AKA…Labiatae


Notes:  In Greek mythology, Pluto fell in love with Mintha, but Pluto’s jealous wife Persephone

crushed Mintha into the ground.  Pluto was unable to change her back, so he turned Mintha into a

peppermint plant with a wonderful fragrance.  The Roman author and naturalist Pliny (AD 23 – AD 9)

said, "The scent of mint awakens the mind and its taste excites the appetite and the stomach”.


Peppermint is a (sterile) hybrid cross between Spearmint (Mentha spicata) and Watermint (Mentha aquatic) plants. The USA is the largest producer of essential oil of peppermint in the world. Peppermint contains large amounts of Menthol (40%) and Menthone (20%), giving peppermint its cooling analgesic effect on the body. These chemicals make peppermint a favorite choice for muscle aches, tension headaches, mental alertness and nausea. Avoid peppermint at bedtime. Avoid using on the face, especially the area around the eyes. For tension headaches, use on drop (diluted) on the back of the lower skull. Peppermint was found to enhance memory in a 2008 research study, conducted in the United Kingdom by:

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. mark.moss@unn.ac.uk

USES:   *Diffuse to stimulate the conscious mind and attention. May relieve mild headaches

                 caused by fatigue and stress. Aids in respiratory conditions.

               *Use very diluted in carrier massage oils for it can be very aggressive to the skin.

*One drop on a compress can help cool fresh bruises or relieve pain. One drop

  each of lavender and peppermint on a compress may relieve neuralgia (nerve pain).


Contraindications: KEEP AWAY FROM CHILDREN. Peppermint can cause apnea or

laryngospasm in children. It is caused by the high menthol content (40%) that is responsible for

this reaction in children. Great pain can result if peppermint gets into the eyes or delicate body

tissues. Should some peppermint get into the eyes, flush with COLD MILK or a cold pressed oil,

such as olive oil. Do not use peppermint when using homeopathic treatments / remedies.



Blend with: (in small quantities): Basil, Bergamot, Clove, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Niaouli, Pine, Ravensara, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Spearmint, Tea Tree.

© The Aromatherapy Factory 


Obtained from: Leaves                        E. O. Color: Clear – pale yellow               Note: Top

Botanical Name: Ravensara aromatica

Family: Lauraceae  (the Laurel family)

A.    Ravensara should not be confused with Ravintsara. These are two completely different essential oils. Ravensara comes from the island of Matagascar. Ravensara has been used in the perfume industry.

Ravensara has also been referred to as “Clove–Nutmeg”.

Ravensara’s main characteristics: The best oil comes from steamed distilled leaves. AVOID steam distilled bark due to its 90 – 95% Estragole (Methyl chavicol) chemical component. Estragole may be carcinogenic.

Aroma is eucalyptus-like, slightly sweet with a hint of fruit.

Uses: Respiratory conditions, shingles, mononucleosis, muscle and joint pain, sedative.

Safety Information: Robert Tisserand and Gary Young recommend a maximum dermal dilution of 0.12 %.

Blend with: Bay, Bergamot, Black Pepper, Cardamom, Clary sage, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Marjoram, Palmarosa, Pine, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Tea tree, Thyme.


B.     Ravintsara…AKA…Ho Leaf Wood

Botanical Name: Cinnamomum  camphora

Ravintsara’s main characteristics: Steam distilled leaves. AVOID using Ravintsara around the faces of infants and children due to the high 1.8 cineole chemical content. 1.8 cineole can cause CNS (Central Nervous System) and breathing problems in young children.

Aroma: Eucalyptus-like with a “greener” smell along with a mild pepper aroma.

Uses: Depression, immune system supporter, influenza, nerve tonic, sedative.

Safety Information: Ravintsara is NOT to be used on children under 6 years of age, during pregnancy, during breast feeding, not for cosmetic use.

© The Aromatherapy Factory



Obtained from:  Flowers              E.O. Color: Transparent to bluish-green                     Note: Middle


Botanical name:  Chamaemelum nobile (Anthemis nobilis) AKA Roman, English or True Chamomile

Family: (Daisy) Asteraceae AKA Compositae. R. chamomile has a mild, warm and sweet apple-like aroma.


Notes: Do not confuse Roman Chamomile with German Chamomile AKA Blue Chamomile AKA Chamomile Matricaria. German Chamomile is blue in color due to its high azulene chemical content and stronger than Roman chamomile.


Ancient Romans used chamomile E.O. to give them a clear mind and to empower them with courage for battle. Chamomile has a very ancient reputation for wound healing. Roman Chamomile is excellent for skin damaged by overexposure to sunlight or where the skin's natural defenses have been reduced by exposure to irritants such as detergents or bleaches. Roman Chamomile is one of the safest E.O.’s known to mankind. Both Roman and German Chamomile are traditionally used for muscle relaxation and skin conditioning and are native to Southern and Western Europe. German Chamomile is frequently used in the perfume industry. It has a strong and earthy aroma.


Uses:         *Use alone or with lavender in a diffuser as an excellent mental relaxant. May

                    relieve inflamed mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (German Chamomile).

                  *Roman Chamomile is a favorite for nervousness, anxiety and headaches.

                  *Add chamomile to carrier oils for massage to help reduce insomnia, nervous indigestion,

                    skin disorders and rheumatism.


Contraindications:  DO NOT USE if allergic to ragweed or suffer from hay fever. If using German Chamomile, check with your physician due to a possible reaction to prescribed drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 enzymes. *Drugs that CYP2D6 metabolizes include: antiarrhythmic, beta blockers, opiates, neuroleptics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants, and a large variety of toxic plants. Common drugs include: Allegra (antihistamine), Amitriptyline (antidepressant), Claritin  (antihistamine), Cyclobenzaprine (muscle relaxant), Dytuss (antihistamine), Effector (antidepressant), Haldol (antipsychotic), Hydrocodone (opioid pain medication), Metoprolol (beta blocker), Paxil (antidepressant - SSRI – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), Prozac (antidepressant SSRI), Rythmol (antiarrhythmic drug), Tagamet (treats stomach disorders), Tamoxifen (prevents some types of breast cancer), Tusstat (cough suppressant), Zoloft (antidepressant SSRI).


Roman Chamomile Blends with: Clary Sage, Eucalyptus, Galbanum, Geranium, Grapefruit, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, Neroli, Rose, Rosemary.


German Chamomile Blends with: Bergamot, Clary Sage, Cypress, Frankincense (Olibanum), Geranium, Grapefruit, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Niaouli, Pine, Ravensara, Roman Chamomile, Rose, Rosemary,

Tea Tree.


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Obtained from: Flower petals          E.O. Color: Light yellow – Deep red          Note: Middle

Botanical Name: Rosa damascena

Family: Rosaceae

Rosa damascena also known as Damask Rose has been distilled for centuries for its luxurious aroma as well  as its healing properties for skin care. Some of the most sought after roses are grown in the “The Valley of the Roses” in Bulgaria. Turkey also cultivates a very fine quality of rose oil. Damask rose petals are plucked in the early morning before the morning dew dries and flower petals are rushed to be processed into Rose Otto, Rose Absolute or Rose Enfleurage.

Rose Otto AKA Rose Attar or Damask Rose is a true steam distilled essential oil of rose. Rose petals are steam distilled as soon as they are picked by hand. Rose Otto has a rich and warm rose aroma. Rose Otto is quite expensive due to the huge number of rose petals required to produce the oil.

Rose Absolute is a method of flower essence extraction using a solvent, such as hexane. In rose absolute,     rose flowers are agitated in hexane, which draws out the aromatic chemical compounds, pigments and waxes. This extract then undergoes a vacuum process which removes the hexane. What remains is a waxy mass called a concrete. This concrete is mixed with alcohol which separates the wax from the aromatic compounds. The alcohol is low-pressure evaporated and leaves behind an oil called an absolute. The absolute may be processed further to remove any impurities. Rose absolute has a brown - red color. Because temperatures are low in this process, Rose Absolute has a fresher aroma than Rose Otto, which is steam distilled at higher temperatures.     

Rose Enfleurage was developed in the south of France in the 1700’s in order to extract precious essential oils from flowers, such as rose, that may be too fragile to steam distill. Rose enfleurage is a process of placing hundreds of freshly picked rose petals on a wooden tray, called a chassis (below). A chassis looks similar to a bee hive honey frame. These trays have a glass bottom that are smeared with animal fat. Layers upon layers of rose petals are placed on the animal lard over several days. After three days, the rose petals are completely absorbed into the animal fat. An alcohol, such as cane sugar alcohol is then added to the tray. The rose oil gravitates to the alcohol, separating the essential oil from the animal fat. The end product of this very time consuming process is called enfleurage. It takes 10,000 lbs. of rose petals to produce one (1) pound of rose oil. 

Uses: Rose has been used for skin care, meditation, spiritual attunement and as a nerve tonic through the ages.

Blend with: Bergamot, Chamomile (Roman), Geranium, Jasmine, Lemon, Neroli, Sandalwood, Palmarosa, Petitgrain and most every floral essential oil.  

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Obtained from:  Leaves / flowering tops          E.O. Color: Colorless to pale yellow           Note: Middle


Botanical Name(s): Rosmarinus officinalis (a higher camphor rosemary)

Rosmarinus officinalis var verbenone AKA Rosmarinus officinalis ct. verbenone…a popular LOW camphor rosemary. (ct = chemotype…Visually identical plants but VERY different chemically)


Family: Lamiaceae (mint family)


Notes:  Rosemary has a sweet and camphoraceous aroma. Rosemary has been found in the wrappings of mummies. The ancient Egyptians used rosemary as did the ancient Greeks who used it for its mind stimulating properties. Roman scholars used to study with headdresses of rosemary around their heads. The “Rose of Mary” is another name for rosemary. It’s believed that when the Virgin Mary spread her blue cloak over a rosemary bush that was in bloom with white flowers, the flowers turned blue. In the Middle Ages, a bride would wear a crown of rosemary. Her groom would wear a sprig of rosemary on his shirt as a good luck charm. Rosemary has been thrown into graves to symbolize remembrance. Rosemary has been reported to enhance memory.


The name of Rosemary is reputed to mean "dew of the sea".  Its natural habitat is on rocky shores where it is exposed to salt spray from the ocean and is indigenous to the Mediterranean area.  Flowering tops will produce the best quality oil.  Leaves and soft twigs are often used for commercial production. R. officinalis may contain up to 20% camphor. Camphor may become neurotoxic at high levels. Robert Tisserand and Gary Young advise not to use rosemary on or near the face.


USES:     *Inhalation of rosemary vapors from a few drops in hot water is recommended for respiratory

                   ailments. Be very careful because eye irritation can occur.

                 *Excellent in a blend for muscle aches and stiff joints.


Contraindications:  Controversy exists over whether or not to use this oil with pregnancy, epilepsy or high blood pressure. Be on the safe side and don't use rosemary for these conditions.


Blend with:  Basil, Bergamot, Cedarwood, Cinnamon, Citronella, Cypress, Elemi, Eucalyptus globulus, Geranium, Grapefruit, Frankincense, Juniper, Labdanum, Lavender, Lavindin, Lemon, Marjoram, Niaouli, Oregano, Peppermint, Petitgrain, Pine, Ravensara, Sage, Tea Tree, Thyme.  

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Obtained from: Wood              E.O. Color: Clear to pale yellow             Note: Base

Botanical Name: Santalum album

Sandalwood was known as Aloes in ancient times. Traditionally, sandalwood was burned during meditation and used within many religious ceremonies. Sandalwood is mentioned in the Bible in John 19:39, Numbers 24:6, Psalms 45:8, Proverbs 7:17, and Song of Solomon 4:14.

Sandalwood is in the Santalaceae family, the same family as mistletoe. Sandalwood tree oil comes from the steam distilled shavings from the heart of the sandalwood trees indigenous to India (Santalum album), Asia and Australia (Santalum spicatum). Sandalwood trees are being over forested in Asia and India. Currently, Bangladesh, Hawaii, Nepal, The Pacific Islands, Pakistan and Sri Lanka grow and sell sandalwood trees for essential oil and commercial use.

Sandalwood has a warm, sweet and soothing aroma that can calm the most nervous patient.

FYI: The Chinese use sandalwood oil for all digestive health problems and skin conditions.

Indications: Acne, antidepressant, bronchitis, depression, dry skin, insomnia, meditation, nervous tension, night sweats, sedation, general skin care, stress reducer, stretch marks.

Contraindications: Although considered rare, according to Robert Tisserand and Gary Young, sandalwood oil may cause skin reactions in sensitive individuals. They recommend a maximum dilution of 2%.

Blend with: Benzoin, Bergamot, Black Pepper, Clary Sage, Clove, Fennel, Frankincense, Geranium, Grapefruit, Jasmine, Lavender,  Lemon, Myrrh, Neroli, Orange, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Pettigrain, Roman Chamomile, Rose, Vetiver, Ylang-ylang.

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Obtained from: Leaves                      E.O. Color: Clear to pale yellow                       Note: Top

Botanical Name: Mentha spicata        Family: Lamiaceae  AKA Labiatae

Vintage Names:  Garden Mint, Green Mint, Lamb’s Mint, Our Lady’s Mint, Sage of Bethlehem

Spearmint is native to the Mediterranean. Spearmint essential oil has a much softer aroma that peppermint. Spearmint is a great alternative to the sharpness of peppermint since spearmint E.O. contains only 0.4% – 0.5% menthol, compared to peppermint which contains 40% menthol. I prefer spearmint over peppermint E.O. for headaches because spearmint has a gentler aroma that does not seem to irritate the eyes. Spearmint is cool and refreshing to muscles and skin. Washington, Idaho & Oregon supply the United States with over 80% of our country’s spearmint oil. These states also supply over 50% of spearmint oil to the world!

FYI: Did you know that Hildegarde von Bingen (circa 1098 – 1179), a German Benedictine abbess and holistic healer used essential oils regularly to help her fellow nuns and village heal from various maladies? She approached healing through the use of herbal tinctures (herbal extracts taken by mouth), plant oils and precious stones. She believed that all things put on Earth are for the use of humans. One of Hildegard’s most favorite plants to use for healing was Spearmint.

FYI: Ancient Greeks and Egyptians used spearmint to therapeutically soak themselves in a warm bath.

Uses of Spearmint: Spearmint essential oil can be made into a spritzer (use distilled water) for a soothing spray on muscles or skin. Try a few drops of essential oil of spearmint in a warm bath. Try placing a cool wash cloth with a couple of drops of spearmint (drop spearmint on top of wash cloth, not on the side that touches the eyes) over the forehead or the back of lower head / upper neck area for a splendid and cooling self-care treatment. Spearmint is wonderful (wafted under the nose) to help relieve nausea, nervousness and digestive complaints.

Contraindications: Spearmint is generally regarded as a safe essential oil. Always perform a Patch Test first on the wrist or forearm to make sure your skin is accepting to spearmint or any new essential oil.

Blend with: Basil, Clary Sage, Eucalyptus, Jasmine, Lavender, Marjoram, Rosemary, Tea Tree (Melaleuca) and many other essential oils.                                                                               

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Tea Tree (Melaleuca)

Obtained from: Leaves                     E. O. Color: Clearfaint yellow                  Note: Middle

Botanical Name: Melaleuca alternifolia / Melaleuca ericifolia (Rosalina)

Tea Tree oil is part of the Myrtle (Myrtaceae) of plants. The vast majority of tea trees grow in Australia. Tea trees also grow in India and New Zealand. The name, “Tea Tree” comes from herbal tea prepared from the leaves of the tea tree, many centuries ago. Australian aborigines have been using tea tree leaves and blossoms to make tea, preparations for headaches and respiratory conditions for hundreds of years. During World War II, Australian soldiers were given flasks of tea tree oil to help prevent skin infections as well as to repel insects.

Tea Tree is related to both Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli) and Melaleuca leucadendron (cajeput).

The aroma of tea tree is medicinal. To some it is an acquired smell. tea tree oil smells earthy, medicinal and woody to most “aromatic palates”. If you cannot tolerate the aroma of tea tree oil, try manuka oil. (www.livingnature.com).

Tea Tree oil is a strong essential oil, so make a (1.5%) dilution in a healthy cold pressed carrier oil. NEVER apply tea tree oil undiluted (neat) to skin. DO NOT USE ON BURNS!

Uses: Analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, may help regulate hypertension, immune system supporter, immuno-stimulant, nerve tonic, respiratory conditions.

Indications: Acne, athlete’s foot, boils, cold sores, colds, insect bites, headaches, oily skin, pressure ulcers,  warts, minor wounds.

Contraindications: DO NOT use on burns. Always dilute tea tree oil to a (maximum) 1.5% dilution.

Blend with: Clary sage, Eucalyptus, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram, Pine, Rosemary, Thyme.


Melaleuca ericifolia (Rosalina) is a newer utilized and researched species of tea tree oil and comes from New South Wales, Australia. This is a mild form of tea tree essential oil; hence it is the tea tree oil of choice for children. This oil is one of a handful of favorite healing oils used by Dr. Penoel, M.D. of France. This oil seems to “target” children’s ears, nose and throat conditions.

Melaleuca ericifolia (Rosalina) is high in Linalool, so it can be sedative, soothing to nerves and the aroma can be tolerated better than Melaleuca alternifolia.

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